About nelsonkraybill

J. Nelson Kraybill is a Mennonite pastor in Elkhart, Indiana. He was director of the London Mennonite Centre in England (1991-1996) and president of Anabaptist Mennonite Biblical Seminary (1997-2009) in Indiana. With a doctorate in NT from Presbyterian Theological Seminary in Virginia, he is author of several books, including APOCALYPSE AND ALLEGIANCE: WORSHIP, POLITICS AND DEVOTION IN THE BOOK OF REVELATION (Brazos, 2010). He is President of Mennonite World Conference, and leads tours to Bible lands.

Hope in the wake of a brutal killing

Perhaps those who have lost a loved one to the brutality of terrorism or war can begin to understand the disorientation and paralysis of two traumatized disciples on their way to Emmaus on the Sunday after Jesus’ crucifixion (Luke 24:1-35). Drained by the horror of Friday, confused by reports of Christ risen, the two likely were on their way home. They “stood still, looking sad” when a stranger asked what they were discussing.

Emmaus b-c

At a the village of El-Qubeibeh–possibly biblical Emmaus–modern disciples Ruben Chupp of Indiana and Hank Landes of Pennsylvania walk on a short stretch of Roman road.

Not recognizing the traveler as Jesus, the disciple named Cleopas snapped back, “Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who does not know the things that have taken place there in these days? . . . We had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel.” Religious leaders of Jerusalem had conspired to eliminate the man many thought would redeem Israel from oppressive foreign occupation.

When disastrous armed revolt against Rome actually came a generation later (AD 66-70), Jewish rebels melted down Roman coins with their blasphemous images of “divine” emperors. Using the very term redemption that was the hope of the travelers to Emmaus, rebels minted new coins that read, “for the redemption of Zion.”

What I would give to have heard Jesus’ biblical exposition of the redemption of his people! Beginning with Moses and all the prophets, Luke says, he interpreted to his fellow travelers the things about himself in all the scriptures. “Were not our hearts burning within us?” the two disciples said later.

How ancient and modern nationalists of Israel, and patriots of every nation, need our Lord’s interpretation of scripture! Beat swords into plowshares, love the enemy, forgive, do justice, love mercy, and embrace kingdom ethics. Peacemakers can use the whole of scripture–even violent passages–when we refract our reading through Jesus.

The two on their way to Emmaus invited the stranger to lodge at their destination. It was when Jesus blessed and broke bread at table that “their eyes were opened, and they recognized” the Lord before he vanished. Death is not the end for followers of the risen Lord. The two disciples rushed back to Jerusalem to report incredible news to the other disciples. There Jesus himself appeared among them, and his first words were, “Peace be with you.”

A Palestinian driver took three of us modern travelers to possible sites of ancient Emmaus: Nicopolis (seventeen miles west of Jerusalem), and El-Qubeibeh (seven miles). Nicopolis seems too far for the round trip hike that Luke describes. Biblical Emmaus likely was at modern El-Qubeibeh, now a Palestinian town.

There in a gated churchyard a short stretch of Roman road remains. In late afternoon I photographed my fellow travelers on the Emmaus road. I thought we were alone on the church grounds, and only later noticed a mysterious figure in the photo behind my companions. Jesus appears on the road at unexpected times and places!

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible even to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Cautionary tale of an arrogant leader

We know Gideon as the military strategist who startled and defeated an invading army of Midianites with a mere three hundred soldiers by sounding trumpets and smashing jars (Judges 7). But what happened after Gideon’s victory is a cautionary tale for all who would self-promote and gain power by trampling others.

Shechem--JNK

Abimelech was crowned king by relatives and friends between Mt. Gerizim (left) and Mt. Ebal (right) at the city of Shechem (modern Nablus).

Gideon (also called Jerubbaal) gave temporary leadership among the tribes of Israel in an era before there were kings, when “judges” governed as needed. These were regional religious/military leaders who rose to unite and defend the scattered tribes or to restore faithfulness at times of crisis.

Some Israelites wanted to make Gideon king after he defeated the Midianites, but he refused. “I will not rule over you, and my son will not rule over you; the Lord will rule over you,” he declared (Judges 8:23). When Gideon died, however, a son named Abimelech thought otherwise. He hired “worthless and reckless fellows,” who followed him (9:4). To eliminate competition, he slaughtered seventy other sons of Gideon–all his half-brothers. Only the youngest, Jotham, survived.

Abimelech was crowned king at Shechem (modern Nablus), a city between Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal that was home to Abimelech’s concubine mother. Soon his sole surviving brother Jotham appeared at the top of Mt. Gerizim and cried aloud, “Listen to me, you lords of Shechem, so that God may listen to you!” (9:7). Jotham then told a fable (9:8-15) that is a timeless take-down of abuse in power:

The trees of the forest decide to choose a king, and one by one they approach possible candidates. They start with the noble olive, but it refuses. “Shall I stop producing my rich oil by which gods and mortals are honored, and go to sway over the trees?” The fig tree likewise says, “Shall I stop producing my sweetness, my delicious fruit” to function as king?

Approaching progressively less worthy candidates, the trees ask the vine to become king. “Shall I stop producing my wine that cheers gods and mortals?” the vine responds. Finally they invite the bramble. Perhaps not understanding how many noble trees have refused the honor, the bramble accepts. But the prickly nature of the bramble immediately becomes evident: “If in good faith you are anointing me king over you, then come and take refuge in my shade; but if not, let fire come out of the bramble and devour the cedars of Lebanon.”

brambles-JNK

Brambles are a nuisance that still flourish today in politics and in the hills of central Palestine.

The idea of a bramble providing shade is laughable, and things did not go well when Abimelech reigned. Supporters soon turned against him, and in the end a woman threw a millstone upon his head. Aware he was dying, Abimelech’s last words to his armor bearer were, “Draw your sword and kill me, so people will not say about me, ‘A woman killed him’” (9:54).

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible even to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Where truth confronted power

kishle-reduced

Today called the kishle (Ottoman word for “prison”), this is a possible location of the praetorium where Jesus stood trial before Pilate.

Today multiple versions of “truth” compete for attention in politics and media, and we ask the same question Pontius Pilate famously put to Jesus: What is truth? (John 18:38). Truth already had been compromised on the night Jesus stood in Pilate’s judgement hall. At the house of High Priest Caiaphas, Peter had lied by declaring he never knew Jesus. Guards then escorted Jesus to Pilate’s praetorium (official headquarters and judgment hall) where Jesus would be sentenced to death. Seeing calamity close in on his master, and recognizing his own moral failure, Peter went out and wept bitterly.

Pilate was Roman governor of Palestine, suspicious of anyone who spoke of kingship apart from subservience to Rome. “My kingdom is not from this world,” Jesus declared to Pilate. Our Lord was not pointing to an other-worldly or theoretical kingdom. The way of Jesus already was creating alternative communities and transforming lives. Jesus was telling Pilate that authority and power in his kingdom do not come from Rome.

Nor was Jesus going to use conventional political tactics or coercive power to advance his reign. “If my kingdom were from this world,” Jesus said, “my followers would be fighting to keep me from being handed over.” In Galilee Jesus had taught his followers to pray, “Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” On earth! Not pie-in-the-sky politics, but a visible new society of people who live in radical obedience to a reconciling God.

What courage!

What courage Jesus shows in the face of a ruler who could order his immediate execution! Awed by such audacity, I descend with other pilgrims into what may be the room where the trial drama took place. Archeologists recently completed excavations of this part of the so-called Tower of David in Jerusalem. This large room perhaps was Pilate’s praetorium. Walls and roof are from the Ottoman era (AD 1300–1922), but foundations are from the time of Christ.

tower-of-david-reduced

“Tower of David” is a misnomer. The structure has nothing to do with David, but is the palace of Herod where Pilate resided when in Jerusalem. The minaret is Ottoman, but it marks the place adjacent to the city wall where there are remains of first-century buildings.

Whether or not this is the actual place where Jesus was interrogated, mocked, and sentenced, here I consider the relationship between the powers of this world and the reign of God. Someday, by God’s grace, we will celebrate the fact that “the kingdom of this world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah” (Rev. 11:15). But for now, political realities of our world often are a far cry from the kingdom of God. Truth too often is the first casualty, as leaders tell half-truths or outright lies to cover their failures or advance their agenda.

Jesus said, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life” (John 14:6), and the three are closely related. With trustworthy speech that needs no oath for validation, we follow the way of Jesus. In the light of the gospel, we learn the truth about God and ourselves. At a time when society pressures us to align with political parties and polarizing ideologies, we find the life abundant of unity with Christ and his body, the church.

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill *****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Women at the growing edge

 

lydia-webres

Along the Krenides River, where the Apostle Paul likely met Lydia, Ellen Kraybill tests the waters.

Among recent immigrants at the church where I worship in Indiana, it is women who come to faith first. Women then invite husbands and relatives, providing energy for outreach. Throughout church history, women often have led the way in growth and change.

The first Christian in Europe whose name we know was Lydia, who received the gospel as Paul traveled through Philippi. Women such as Lydia in the New Testament sometimes serve as hosts (and pastors?) of house churches. These include Mary the mother of John Mark at Jerusalem (Acts 12:12), Chloe at Corinth (2 Cor. 1:11), and Phoebe at Cenchreae (Rom. 16:1). Nympha hosts a congregation at Colossae (Col. 4:15), and Priscilla with her husband Aquila shepherd a church in their home at Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:19).

The Greco-Roman world in which the early church grew was patriarchal. Women were second-class, usually under the guardianship of a father or husband. But widows could function as heads of household. This may have been the situation of Lydia, immigrant entrepreneur at Philippi, who marketed purple cloth.

Purple dye was expensive because a mere pound had to be extracted from thousands of snails. Being costly, purple was the color of royalty and elites. Lydia traded in this luxury product, suggesting she was similar to other Gentile “women of high standing” (Acts 17:12) who embraced the gospel.

Gender imbalance

The early church appears to have been disproportionately female, partly because of two factors: 1) In Christ, gender distinctions dissolve so there is “no longer male and female” (Gal. 3:28), meaning woman often had more status in the church than in Roman society, and 2) Christians rejected the Roman practice of leaving unwanted newborns (most often female) abandoned to die. Christians nurtured their infant daughters, and also rescued infant girls who had been abandoned by others.

Lydia survived into adulthood, but was drawn to faith community at the edge of society. The book of Acts says Paul met Lydia along with other women at a Jewish “place of prayer” by the river outside Philippi (Acts 16:13). A Roman colony such as Philippi was not going to have a Jewish place of prayer within its boundaries. The likely spot where the women met to pray now is a shaded bend in the Krenides River near ruins of Philippi.

Lydia was a “God-worshiper,” meaning a Gentile who worshiped the God of Israel but did not practice the whole of Jewish Law. She was an immigrant, culturally in transition.

The church today can profit from making entry ramps for similar newcomers and God-seekers who are drawn to the hospitality and Good News of the faith community. Often women will be the leading edge of new family systems or ethnic groups coming into the church. The Holy Spirit will open their hearts and ours to Christ, just as happened when Paul shared the good news with Lydia.

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill *****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? Please be in touch with me and/or see www.TourMagination.com

Sanctuary for Jesus’ grandmother

With anti-immigrant fever festering in countries of the Western world, I find it instructive to drive on the King’s Highway into ancient Moab, east of the Dead Sea in modern Jordan. Here ancestors of David and Jesus found sanctuary during the era of judges when drought devastated Bethlehem and their Judean homeland (Ruth 1:1–5).

The ancestors were Naomi, her husband, and two sons. They surely traveled the King’s Highway into Moab because it was and still is the only main north-south highway through the region.

moab-kings-hwy-web-res

This is the King’s Highway in Jordan through biblical Moab–a route that Naomi and family almost certainly traveled when they arrived as economic refugees.

The family must have been in dire straits to migrate to Moab, because it was a nation Israelites despised. Israelites understood the founder of Moab to be the product of incest (Gen. 19:37). The Law of Moses stated that “no . . . Moabite shall be admitted to the assembly of the Lord” (Deut. 23:3) because Moabites had been hostile when Israelites passed through their territory on their way from Egypt to Canaan.

So what kind of reception did Naomi and family receive? Apparently better than some immigrants experience in my own country, and the family settled in Moab. Sons grew up and married Moabite women, and then tragedy struck. First Naomi’s husband died, then both her sons, leaving three widows: the Israelite Naomi and her two Moabite daughters-in-law.

Naomi resolved to return to her native Bethlehem. She urged the two younger women to stay in their homeland of Moab. But daughter-in-law Ruth clung to Naomi and spoke the timeless words, “Entreat me not to leave you, or to turn back from following after you. For wherever you go, I will go, and wherever you lodge, I will lodge. Your people shall be my people, and your God, my God” (Ruth 1:16).

Now it fell upon Israelites at Bethlehem to show hospitality to an immigrant. The book of Deuteronomy may have said nasty things about Moabites, but it also said, “When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf in the field, you shall not go back to get it; it shall be left for the alien, the orphan, and the widow, so that the Lord your God may bless you” (Deut 24:19).

Ruth was an alien in Bethlehem, and landowner Boaz allowed her to glean in his fields. Romance blossomed, the two married, and Ruth the Moabite became an ancestor both to King David and to Jesus (Matt. 1:1-16).

Passports and visas did not exist in the time of Naomi and Ruth, but prejudice surely did. Naomi was an economic refugee when she traveled down the King’s Highway into Moab, and had to overcome prejudice. If she and her impoverished family had needed to wait twenty years for an uncertain visa into Moab, they may have starved to death.

Stories of the immigrant grandmothers of Jesus remind me why it might be important for followers of Jesus to help create sanctuary today for immigrants who flee hardship in their homeland and look to us for hospitality.

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill *****************************************IMG_0425

Come with me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour for people with hiking boots, accessible to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls (yes, you can circumnavigate the Old City on top of the walls), trace the Triumphal Entry route, and more. Interested? Please be in touch with me and/or with www.TourMagination.com

In praise of the innkeeper

That poor innkeeper at Bethlehem! For centuries the church has berated him for turning away a woman in labor and making her give birth in a stable. It is possible, though, that the innkeeper actually provided the warmest, safest, and most private place he could for Mary to give birth. Will we show the same level of hospitality for vulnerable persons arriving in our communities?

bethlem-cave-reduced

A modern painting in the chapel at Shepherds Field shows the birth of Jesus in a cave.

Bethlehem was on the highway south from Jerusalem to Hebron and Egypt. Along such a highway there were caravanserai, rustic inns for travelers and their animals, often with minimal privacy and with risk of crime.

Perhaps such an inn at Bethlehem was overbooked, and turned away Joseph and Mary. But when Luke 2:7 refers to the facility where there was “no place” for the visitors from Nazareth, it is not with the word inn (pandokeion). Instead, Luke uses a term (kataluma) meaning guest room or dining room.

Since Joseph had family roots in Bethlehem, it is likely that he and Mary stayed with relatives. Palestinian homes of the era typically consisted of one large room where the entire household lived, dined, and slept. If relatives in addition to Joseph and Mary also arrived needing lodging, the house would have been crowded and inhospitable for childbirth.

Today thousands of pilgrims to Bethlehem stream into Church of the Nativity, the sixth-century structure built where a fourth-century church once stood. Visitors descend into the church’s crypt—in reality, a cave. Here, by ancient tradition, Mary gave birth to Jesus. This is a scenario for how that could have happened:

People of ancient Palestine commonly built their houses against or on top of a cave in the bedrock. Cave rooms were cool in summer and warm in winter, affording safe shelter for people and animals. Mary and Joseph may have planned to stay at such a cave-house at Bethlehem, sleeping in the main room with a gaggle of relatives. But Mary went into labor, and the main room of the house “was no place” for Mary to give birth. Instead, caring hosts took Mary and Joseph into the adjacent cave where there was privacy and animal warmth.

Bethlehem JNK with copyright.jpg

A woman kneels (lower left) to reach into the spot where, by tradition, Jesus was born. A scrum of pilgrims wait their turn.

It is hard to picture this humble scene when visiting Church of the Nativity today. Pilgrims crowd into the crypt, many so devout and moved by the holy site that they seem to jostle each other out of the way. Walls of the cave are garish with the barnacles of piety—candles, ornaments, precious metals. A silver star that once adorned the floor exactly where Jesus was born was stolen in 1847—a deed that helped trigger the Crimean War (1854-1856)!  

I visit Church of the Nativity whenever I can. But singing carols in a small cave at nearby Shepherd’s Field nurtures me more. Away from the crush of the crypt, I can better picture the unadorned and humble surroundings of Jesus’ birth. My mind turns to immigrants and refugees—millions around the world—who need basic shelter and safety. Will I do my part to show the hospitality that I believe unnamed hosts at Bethlehem showed to the mother of my Lord?

© 2016  J. Nelson Kraybill *****************************************IMG_0425

In 2018 I plan to lead a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour for people with hiking boots, accessible to non-athletes like myself. Tentative dates are May 15-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum, and possibly hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls (yes, you can circumnavigate the Old City on top of the walls), trace the Triumphal Entry route, and more. Interested? Please be in touch with me and/or with www.TourMagination.com

Do you want to be made well?

With cancer in his middle-aged body and the prospect of lifespan shortened, Doug Brewer joined a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 2014 while health permitted. Near the start of the Via Dolorosa—the traditional “way of suffering” where Jesus carried his cross through Jerusalem—Doug and fellow pilgrims visited ruins of Bethzatha (Bethesda) Pool. A man who had been sick for thirty-eight years once lay beside that pool until Jesus asked, “Do you want to be made well?” (John 5:6)

bethzatha-pool-kraybill-compressed

At Bethzatha Pool, fellow pilgrims surround Doug Brewer with love and prayers. Others in the picture (clockwise starting with woman in black close to the camera) are Mary Lou Farmer, Hortensia Unternaher, Ruby (local tour guide), Shana Peachey Boshart, Roger Farmer, Martha Yoder, Randy Dalke, Karen Dalke, Helen Lindstrom, and David Boshart (leading the prayer).

Bethzatha Pool was known in ancient times as a place of healing. Some New Testament manuscripts say that “an angel of the Lord went down at certain seasons into the pool, and stirred the water; whoever stepped in first after the stirring of the water was made well.” The man sick for thirty-eight years must have been paralyzed. “I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up,” he said to Jesus. “While I am making my way, someone else steps down ahead of me.”

Having others in church or society step ahead of them sometimes happens to persons with illness or physical challenges. “I have no one to put me into the pool” is another way of saying my community ignores me. In some faith communities, those with chronic illness feel judged as lacking faith or willpower, or even as having sin in their lives.

The man at Bethzatha Pool did not have a sustaining community. No one helped him into the water, and religious watchdogs were quick to bark when miraculously and wonderfully he was able to rise and carry his mat—but in violation of strict Sabbath rules (5:10).

Warm hands and heartfelt prayers

Someone in our pilgrim band at Bethzatha Pool asked Doug if he wanted prayer for healing. Soon we surrounded him with warm hands and heartfelt petition to God. No one presumed personal powers to cure; all of us entrusted Doug’s health to a loving Creator.

Two years later I inquired by email about Doug’s well-being. Turns out he was at death’s door in the interval, but survived. “By God’s grace and many prayers, I’m back to normal and feeling really good,” he wrote. “My cancer level has been at 0 for the past several months, so I’m not on any chemo at the moment.”

Praise God! A loving family and community walked with Doug through his own Via Dolorosa. Faith, divine power, and modern medicine converged to restore Doug. We do well to view all healing as a gift from God, without needing to distinguish between miraculous and natural recovery. We also do well to accept that sometimes, even with faith abundant and excellent medical care, we or persons we love remain ill or die.

The author of Sirach (a book the early church considered canonical), writing about 200 BC, gives counsel still good for us today: “When you are ill . . . pray to the Lord, and he will heal you. . . Then give the physician his place, for the Lord created him . . . There may come a time when recovery lies in the hands of physicians, for they too pray to the Lord that he grant them success in diagnosis and in healing” (Sirach 38:9-14).

© 2016  J. Nelson Kraybill *****************************************IMG_0425

Thanks to Doug Brewer for reviewing this blog and giving me permission to publish. For a fascinating article on prayer and healing in an unlikely source, see “Mind over matter,” National Geographic, December 2016, pp. 30–55.

In 2018 I plan to lead a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour for people with hiking boots, accessible to non-athletes like myself. Tentative dates are May 15-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum, and possibly hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls (yes, you can circumnavigate the Old City on top of the walls), trace the Triumphal Entry route, and more. Interested? Please be in touch with me and/or with www.TourMagination.com