Giving the knee to Jesus as Lord

 

Marcellus-JNKcr

On this first-century tomb at Colchester, England, a Roman soldier carries the rod that means he was a centurion. His weapons hang from two belts of the kind that Marcellus removed and threw to the ground to disarm.

American football players protesting racism recently gave the knee instead of standing at attention during a performance of the United States national anthem, triggering a Twitter storm from the president of the country and a cloudburst of editorial commentary. The wave of  athletic protest began when a player named Colin Kaepernick, wanting to call attention to black men dying at the hands of police, knelt in public at pre-game ceremonies.

Kaepernick is a confessing Christian with Bible verses (not ones I would choose) tattooed on his body. A few years ago, he spoke of his commitment to Scripture. Just as each football team “has a thick playbook full of very specific responsibilities,” he said, the “same is true of our ‘playbook’ the Bible.” Kaepernick was raised on stories of Daniel in the lion’s den and Jesus standing before Pilate. He was accustomed to praying as he entered the football stadium, and has made large contributions to international charitable causes. But symbolic protest made him the object of scorn.

The witness of Marcellus

Kaepernick’s costly witness reminds me of Roman centurion Marcellus, who became a Christian while in the Roman army. On July 21, AD 298, Marcellus stood in front of troops he commanded in Morocco, threw down his weapons, and declared, “I am a soldier of Jesus Christ, the eternal king. From now I cease to serve your emperors and I despise the worship of your gods of wood and stone, for they are deaf and dumb images.”

The emperor in AD 298 was Diocletian, who shortly would unleash devastating persecution of the church. With his empire restive, Diocletian promoted patriotism by requiring all soldiers to sacrifice to the Roman gods and to honor the emperor on his “divine” birthday as a manifestation of the god Jove.

Marcellus resisted, and faced court martial on October 30, AD 298. The judge asked, “What madness possessed you to throw down the symbols of your military oath and say the things you did? . . . You threw down your weapons?”

“Yes, I did,” the soldier replied. “For it is not fitting that a Christian, who fights for Christ his Lord, should fight for the armies of this world.” Marcellus was beheaded immediately after trial.

A martyr’s grave in Indiana

The medieval church in Europe often placed martyr bones under the altar when they established a cathedral. When University of Notre Dame in Indiana founded a new basilica in 1870, they followed that tradition and acquired the bones of Marcellus, which now rest under the high altar. I pray in the basilica each October to thank God for this saint’s witness.

Kaepernick will not lose his head. But at least for the time being, this gifted athlete appears unemployable. Though their circumstances and motivations are different, I honor the actions of both Marcellus and Kaepernick. Marcellus refused to worship “deaf and dumb images” of gods and emperors. Kaepernick protested politicians and civic leaders being deaf and dumb to racism. May I have the courage like these followers of Jesus to make public, nonviolent witness against idolatry and injustice.

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ******************************************IMG_0410 (4)

Come with Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walking tour in Galilee and Jerusalem! Dates are May 14-25, 2018, and the pace will be moderate. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum, and hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took his disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route on foot, and see much more. The Gospels will be in our hands, and prayer in our hearts. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Confronting a narcissistic ruler

Machaerus mountain--JNKcr

The Machaerus palace complex covered the entire flat top of this mountain in Jordan. In the distance is the Dead Sea, and on a clear day Jerusalem is visible at the upper right.

The moral character of a ruler can reach such low ebb that prophets arise to name and condemn the scoundrel’s behavior, even if the ruler strikes back. In totalitarian states, immoral rulers imprison or murder adversaries. In democracies, they discredit and counter-accuse.

John the Baptist saw and condemned the immorality of Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, and paid for it with his life. Having been educated in Rome, this Herod was a son of Herod the Great. He schmoozed Rome and named his new regional capital in Galilee “Tiberias” after the reigning emperor. Like his father, Herod Antipas wielded power to stroke his ego and eliminate foes. Jesus called him “that fox” (Luke 13:32), and Herod eventually helped preside at Jesus’ trial.

But even as he rubbed out opponents, Herod perversely wanted to meet them. When the Tetrarch finally encountered Jesus in a Jerusalem courtroom, Herod was “very glad, for he had been wanting to see him for a long time, because he had heard about him and was hoping to see him perform some sign” (Luke 23:8).

Called Tetrarch because he inherited one-fourth of his father’s kingdom, Herod controlled two separate regions: Galilee in the north, and Perea–an area east and north of the Dead Sea. When John the Baptist began to speak out against corruption, economic injustice, and spiritual leaders in cahoots with Rome, he took his ministry to desert regions of Perea and the Jordan River valley.

Always paranoid about the possibility of insurrection, the Herod family maintained scattered palace-fortresses as safe houses. One such was Machaerus, which crowned a dramatic peak in mountains east of the Dead Sea. Not far to the north, John was proclaiming, “Bear fruits worthy of repentance . . . Even now the ax is lying at the root of the trees . . .”

When Herod seduced and married his brother’s wife, John publicly rebuked him (Mark 6:17-29). The marriage was both adulterous and incestuous because the woman was Herod’s niece. Herod’s new wife wanted John dead, but fearing public relations pushback, Herod simply threw him in prison.

Machaerus courtyard--JNKCR

Archeologists have reconstructed the central courtyard of the Herodian palace at Machaerus–perhaps the place where Salome danced.  Also reconstucted is one pillar that was part of the porch around the courtyard, and an adjacent small section of the original courtyard stones.

An opportunity for revenge came when the narcissistic ruler celebrated his own birthday with a party which, according to Josephus, was at Machaerus. He invited officers of his court and leaders from Galilee. Salome, daughter of Herod’s new wife, performed such a beguiling dance that Herod promised to give whatever she asked. Consulting with her mother, the girl said, “The head of John the Baptist!” With the pesky prophet apparently in a dungeon at Machaerus, Herod ordered immediate execution, and the head arrived on a platter.

Today it is an easy hike up Machaerus mountain, and the ruins are sobering: a courtyard that may be where Salome danced, an adjacent hall where Herod likely feasted, and various underground rooms that could have been dungeons.

The Romans eventually tired of Herod’s erratic and power-grabbing governance, and he did not come to a happy end. In AD 39, a few years after killing John and Jesus, he was stripped of power and sent into exile in France, where he died.

I admire the moral fiber of John, who stood up to corrupt and narcissistic power. I honor the courage of John’s disciples who came to collect his body. I support peaceful protesters, pastors, and prophets who confront corrupt and narcissistic power today in this country and around the world.

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ******************************************IMG_0410 (4)

Come with Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walking tour in Galilee and Jerusalem! Dates are May 14-25, 2018, and the pace will be moderate. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum, and hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took his disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route on foot, and more. The Gospels will be in our hands, and prayer in our hearts. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

A bit of heaven in my pocket

 

RevStonesCRweb

The twelve stones of Revelation, clockwise around the outer edge, starting with the green stone in my hand: chrysoprase (tanzanite), jacinth, carnelian, sapphire, agate, onyx, topaz, emerald, beryl; in the middle, clockwise starting with the purple: amethyst, chrysolite, jasper.

“That’s tanzanite!” said Bishop Amos Muhagachi of Tanzania when he saw one the stones on my windowsill. Indeed, the glistening green gem came from Tanzania, but I know it as chrysoprase. It completed my collection of twelve stones named by first-century prophet John on Patmos island (Revelation 22:19, 20).

John ministered among early churches in what today is western Turkey. It appears he got into trouble with Roman authorities, was exiled to Patmos, and there wrote a blistering blast against empire. The Roman empire, he charges, is a rampaging beast whose power issues from Satan. Mounted on the beast is the harlot “Babylon,” a derisive label that protesting Jews and Christians gave to Rome. She is “drunk with the blood of the witnesses to Jesus.”

Condemning Roman emperor worship as blasphemous, John foresees divine judgment against the greed and violence of Rome. Rome destroyed earthly Jerusalem in AD 70, but now something better is coming. Beyond the gloom of his vision, John sees the light of a new Jerusalem.

If the beast represents Roman rule, new Jerusalem represents alternative citizenship that early Christians claimed in the kingdom of God. Babylon (Rome) “fornicates” with kings of the earth. It corrupts complicit client rulers such as the Herod dynasty, and extracts resources of all kinds from the provinces. The new Jerusalem, in contrast, produces a river of the water of life that nurtures trees for healing the nations. Apostles of the Lamb form the foundation of the city. This is heaven coming to earth, a city where God dwells with mortals to wipe every tear.

In contrast to empires, which always expand the chasm between rich and poor, the new Jerusalem brings equal access to wealth. The very streets on which inhabitants walk are gold. Foundations of the city are replete with jewels–the same that adorn my windowsill.  This is an image of the church in mission, sharing wealth and seeking economic access for all.

In Old City Jerusalem, a shopkeeper supplies me with six stones named in Revelation: jasper, sapphire, onyx, carnelian, topaz, and amethyst. Paying a few dollars per stone, I walk away with a bit of heaven in my pocket, then round up the remaining gems on Ebay: jacinth from Cambodia, agate from Botswana, emerald from Brazil, chrysoprase (tanzanite) from Tanzania, beryl from Angola, and chrysolite from Pakistan.

Many people in the world would not have spare cash to visit Jerusalem or even to purchase such stones. The disparity of resources reminds me of the growing gap between rich and poor. Oxfam calculates that just eight men in the world have more wealth than half of humanity. Eight! Bishop Amos and his colleagues have a plan to grow the Mennonite church in Tanzania from 100,000 to one million. That is spiritual wealth.

I yearn for the day when the new Jerusalem is fully here, when material poverty is no more. John saw that the holy city already is breaking into the world–now! I consider what my part should be in the economy of that holy city: give generously to agencies that foster economic opportunity, support candidates who think globally, care for the environment, build relationships across boundaries of nation and class, live simply.

Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven!

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ****************************************IMG_0425

The popular-level book I wrote on Revelation is now available in Spanish! See https://www.amazon.com/Apocalipsis-lealtad-pol%C3%ADtica-devoci%C3%B3n-Spanish/dp/1532991134/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1500927801&sr=1-1&keywords=apocalipsis+y+lealtad  The English language version is Apocalypse and Allegiance: Worship, Politics and Devotion in the Book of Revelation (Brazos, 2010). Walter Brueggemann calls it “fresh, vigorous, imaginative, demanding.”

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible even to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Danger and loss lie that way

We had not traveled the whole way to Crete to be intimidated by a few washed-out roads! Determined to cross the island to the south coast, Ellen and I rented a sturdy SUV and headed into the drenched central mountains. Our destination? A tiny harbor called Fair Havens where a merchant ship carrying the apostle Paul once anchored (Acts 27).

FairHavens4blogCR2

From the rainy central mountains we saw sunshine in the bay at Fair Havens (modern Kali Limenes) where Paul’s ship anchored.

If we were tense driving mountain roads in stormy weather, how anxious must Paul have been when he arrived at Crete? The apostle was a prisoner, appealing his case to Nero’s court at Rome. His life was at stake. Further danger came from making such a sea journey late in the sailing season when storms could sink a ship.

Unlike modern sailboats with deep keels, ancient sailing vessels could not “beat” upwind. They only could run with or sail across the wind. Unfavorable conditions quickly could blow a wind-powered ship far off course.

Staying near land as long as possible, Paul’s ship had followed the coastline from Palestine up to southern Asia (modern Turkey). From there the vessel turned southwest until “with difficulty” it rounded the east end of Crete and continued along the south coast to the harbor at Fair Havens.

Ellen and I headed toward the harbor by land, crossing the central mountain range in cloud and mist. But as we crested Crete, the heavy weather broke, and the south coast came into view. Sunlight streamed down on Fair Havens!

When Paul arrived there, he told his captors that it was too dangerous to continue further. But the ship captain had a mind of his own, and insisted they at least sail to the west end of Crete for the winter.

When the boat weighed anchor, a violent northeaster caught them, blowing the ship far out into open waters. The only option was to continue westward and hope for the best. Paul had warned that “danger and much heavy loss” would accompany such a voyage.

Sometimes that’s what I want to say when I see polarization and partisan behavior in the church. Sometimes I sense danger and heavy loss ahead when my government ignores environmental warnings, cuts benefits for the poor, gives tax breaks to the rich, stokes racism, or aligns with dictators. I am not a prisoner, but I am along for the journey with my church and my country.

When Paul’s ship got into serious trouble at sea, he declared, “You should have listened to me and not have set sail from Crete.” But the apostle did not linger long with “I told you so.” Instead, even as his vessel careened toward catastrophe, Paul as prisoner testified to the saving power of God. He encouraged fellow travelers and prayed with them. He so cared for the crew that they chose, apparently against standard pratice regarding prisoners, to spare his life rather than execute him when shipwreck became certain. Six hundred miles west of Fair Havens, after a torturous passage, the ship carrying Paul disintegrated on the coast of Malta.

Paul’s dilemma at Crete reminds me that difficult or dangerous circumstances sometimes are completely beyond my control. Then I remember, with Paul, that a loving and merciful God is sovereign. What will I do to show God’s love to fellow church members or fellow citizens if, God forbid, crisis and hardship follow in the wake of bad choices others have made? And who will mediate God’s grace to me when I make bad choices?

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible even to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Hope in the wake of a brutal killing

Perhaps those who have lost a loved one to the brutality of terrorism or war can begin to understand the disorientation and paralysis of two traumatized disciples on their way to Emmaus on the Sunday after Jesus’ crucifixion (Luke 24:1-35). Drained by the horror of Friday, confused by reports of Christ risen, the two apparently were on their way home. They “stood still, looking sad” when a stranger asked what they were discussing.

Emmaus b-c

At a the village of El-Qubeibeh–possibly biblical Emmaus–modern disciples Ruben Chupp of Indiana and Hank Landes of Pennsylvania walk on a short stretch of Roman road.

Not recognizing the traveler as Jesus, the disciple named Cleopas snapped back, “Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who does not know the things that have taken place there in these days? . . . We had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel.” Religious leaders of Jerusalem had conspired to eliminate the man many thought would redeem Israel from foreign occupation.

When armed revolt against Rome actually came a generation later (AD 66-70), Jewish rebels melted down Roman coins with their blasphemous images of “divine” emperors. Using the very term redemption that was the hope of the travelers to Emmaus, rebels minted new coins that read, “for the redemption of Zion.”

What I would give to have heard Jesus’ biblical exposition of the redemption of his people! Beginning with Moses and all the prophets, Luke says, he interpreted to his fellow travelers the things about himself in all the scriptures. “Were not our hearts burning within us?” the two disciples said later.

How ancient and modern nationalists of Israel, and patriots of every nation, need our Lord’s interpretation of scripture! Beat swords into plowshares, love the enemy, forgive, do justice, love mercy, and embrace kingdom ethics. Peacemakers can use the whole of scripture–even violent passages–when we refract our reading through Jesus.

The two on their way to Emmaus invited the stranger to lodge at their destination. It was when Jesus blessed and broke bread at table that “their eyes were opened, and they recognized” the Lord before he vanished. Death is not the end for followers of the risen Lord. The two disciples rushed back to Jerusalem to report incredible news to the other disciples. There Jesus himself appeared among them, and his first words were, “Peace be with you.”

A Palestinian driver took three of us modern travelers to possible sites of ancient Emmaus: Nicopolis (seventeen miles west of Jerusalem), and El-Qubeibeh (seven miles). Nicopolis seems too far for the round trip hike that Luke describes. Biblical Emmaus likely was at modern El-Qubeibeh, now a Palestinian town.

There in a gated churchyard a short stretch of Roman road remains. In late afternoon I photographed my fellow travelers on the Emmaus road. I thought we were alone on the church grounds, and only later noticed a mysterious figure in the photo behind my companions. Jesus appears on the road at unexpected times and places!

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible even to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Cautionary tale of an arrogant leader

We know Gideon as the military strategist who startled and defeated an invading army of Midianites with a mere three hundred soldiers by sounding trumpets and smashing jars (Judges 7). But what happened after Gideon’s victory is a cautionary tale for all who would self-promote and gain power by trampling others.

Shechem--JNK

Abimelech was crowned king by relatives and friends between Mt. Gerizim (left) and Mt. Ebal (right) at the city of Shechem (modern Nablus).

Gideon (also called Jerubbaal) gave temporary leadership among the tribes of Israel in an era before there were kings, when “judges” governed as needed. These were regional religious/military leaders who rose to unite and defend the scattered tribes or to restore faithfulness at times of crisis.

Some Israelites wanted to make Gideon king after he defeated the Midianites, but he refused. “I will not rule over you, and my son will not rule over you; the Lord will rule over you,” he declared (Judges 8:23). When Gideon died, however, a son named Abimelech thought otherwise. He hired “worthless and reckless fellows,” who followed him (9:4). To eliminate competition, he slaughtered seventy other sons of Gideon–all his half-brothers. Only the youngest, Jotham, survived.

Abimelech was crowned king at Shechem (modern Nablus), a city between Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal that was home to Abimelech’s concubine mother. Soon his sole surviving brother Jotham appeared at the top of Mt. Gerizim and cried aloud, “Listen to me, you lords of Shechem, so that God may listen to you!” (9:7). Jotham then told a fable (9:8-15) that is a timeless take-down of abuse in power:

The trees of the forest decide to choose a king, and one by one they approach possible candidates. They start with the noble olive, but it refuses. “Shall I stop producing my rich oil by which gods and mortals are honored, and go to sway over the trees?” The fig tree likewise says, “Shall I stop producing my sweetness, my delicious fruit” to function as king?

Approaching progressively less worthy candidates, the trees ask the vine to become king. “Shall I stop producing my wine that cheers gods and mortals?” the vine responds. Finally they invite the bramble. Perhaps not understanding how many noble trees have refused the honor, the bramble accepts. But the prickly nature of the bramble immediately becomes evident: “If in good faith you are anointing me king over you, then come and take refuge in my shade; but if not, let fire come out of the bramble and devour the cedars of Lebanon.”

brambles-JNK

Brambles are a nuisance that still flourish today in politics and in the hills of central Palestine.

The idea of a bramble providing shade is laughable, and things did not go well when Abimelech reigned. Supporters soon turned against him, and in the end a woman threw a millstone upon his head. Aware he was dying, Abimelech’s last words to his armor bearer were, “Draw your sword and kill me, so people will not say about me, ‘A woman killed him’” (9:54).

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill ****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible even to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/

Where truth confronted power

kishle-reduced

Today called the kishle (Ottoman word for “prison”), this is a possible location of the praetorium where Jesus stood trial before Pilate.

Today multiple versions of “truth” compete for attention in politics and media, and we ask the same question Pontius Pilate famously put to Jesus: What is truth? (John 18:38). Truth already had been compromised on the night Jesus stood in Pilate’s judgement hall. At the house of High Priest Caiaphas, Peter had lied by declaring he never knew Jesus. Guards then escorted Jesus to Pilate’s praetorium (official headquarters and judgment hall) where Jesus would be sentenced to death. Seeing calamity close in on his master, and recognizing his own moral failure, Peter went out and wept bitterly.

Pilate was Roman governor of Palestine, suspicious of anyone who spoke of kingship apart from subservience to Rome. “My kingdom is not from this world,” Jesus declared to Pilate. Our Lord was not pointing to an other-worldly or theoretical kingdom. The way of Jesus already was creating alternative communities and transforming lives. Jesus was telling Pilate that authority and power in his kingdom do not come from Rome.

Nor was Jesus going to use conventional political tactics or coercive power to advance his reign. “If my kingdom were from this world,” Jesus said, “my followers would be fighting to keep me from being handed over.” In Galilee Jesus had taught his followers to pray, “Thy kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” On earth! Not pie-in-the-sky politics, but a visible new society of people who live in radical obedience to a reconciling God.

What courage!

What courage Jesus shows in the face of a ruler who could order his immediate execution! Awed by such audacity, I descend with other pilgrims into what may be the room where the trial drama took place. Archeologists recently completed excavations of this part of the so-called Tower of David in Jerusalem. This large room perhaps was Pilate’s praetorium. Walls and roof are from the Ottoman era (AD 1300–1922), but foundations are from the time of Christ.

tower-of-david-reduced

“Tower of David” is a misnomer. The structure has nothing to do with David, but is the palace of Herod where Pilate resided when in Jerusalem. The minaret is Ottoman, but it marks the place adjacent to the city wall where there are remains of first-century buildings.

Whether or not this is the actual place where Jesus was interrogated, mocked, and sentenced, here I consider the relationship between the powers of this world and the reign of God. Someday, by God’s grace, we will celebrate the fact that “the kingdom of this world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah” (Rev. 11:15). But for now, political realities of our world often are a far cry from the kingdom of God. Truth too often is the first casualty, as leaders tell half-truths or outright lies to cover their failures or advance their agenda.

Jesus said, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life” (John 14:6), and the three are closely related. With trustworthy speech that needs no oath for validation, we follow the way of Jesus. In the light of the gospel, we learn the truth about God and ourselves. At a time when society pressures us to align with political parties and polarizing ideologies, we find the life abundant of unity with Christ and his body, the church.

© 2017  J. Nelson Kraybill *****************************************IMG_0425

Come with my wife Ellen and me on a Peace Pilgrim walk in Galilee and Jerusalem—an active tour accessible to non-athletes like myself. Dates are May 14-25, 2018. We will walk parts of the Jesus Trail from Nazareth to Capernaum. Details are still pending but we likely also will hike at Caesarea Philippi where Jesus took the disciples on retreat in the foothills of Mt Hermon. At Jerusalem we will walk the city walls, trace the triumphal entry route, and more. Interested? See https://www.tourmagination.com/tour/holy-land-peace-pilgrim-walk-jesus/